Having “killer” looks isn’t going to get you out of this one

Humans truly are social creatures. It’s not just an idea either, research has been put into this idea that humans are social creatures. “The use of deliberate social signals can serve to increase reputation and trust and facilitates teaching. This is likely to be a critical factor in the steep cultural ascent of mankind.” – (Firth, 2009). Our social interactions aren’t limited to just other humans but other inhabitants of our planet, animals.

With humans co-existing with animals it’s no surprise that many people have made connections to animals through either work or just having them as pets. According to the Australian Veterinary Association “Dogs remain the most popular type of pet with almost two in five households (3.6 million) owning a dog”. On top of this “Cats were the next most common type of pet with nearly three in 10 households owning a cat (2.7 million).”. It’s no secret that people love animals, but what happens when an animal is pitted against a human?

A 2013 documentary called “Blackfish” was released and it focused on the consequences of keeping killer whales in captivity. This documentary highlights how killer whales have emotions such as happiness, sadness or even anger. The documentary examines the deaths of three individuals who worked closely with the killer whales. With the way the documentary was set up, it made the killer whales appear as the victim while corporate is the villain. This was done through the use of anthropomorphism, the act of giving human traits to an animal.

In the documentary killer whales were separated from families and put into captivity to entertain water park attendees. According to defenders.org:

“Orcas are highly social animals that travel in groups called pods. Pods usually consist of 5 – 30 whales, although some pods may combine to form a group of 100 or more. Orcas establish social hierarchies, and pods are led by females”

So, like humans they too are social animals. With this in mind, the act of taking them away from their families and capturing them for our own entertainment is an act of evil against the killer whales. This in turn gives us reason to dislike the people capturing them in the documentary. Despite this, when a killer whale killed one of the employees the line of morality becomes murky. Yes, the killer whale suffered but when an entertainer was killed as a result of interacting with the killer whale that’s inexcusable as it threatens the safety of the people there. It was not a one off case either as two more died soon after, all done by the same killer whale, Tilikum. People can claim it’s just Tilikum blowing some steam after what’s been done to him but there’s no doubt that he’s dangerous regardless of the circumstances.

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Theatrical release poster for Blackfish documentary

Throughout the documentary it’s clear the trainers had a connection with the killer whales which is perfectly fine. However, the documentary presented the killer whales in a way where they were the victim while corporate was the villain. This is true to an extent, but people forget Tilikum took three lives of trainers. While we can make connections with animals, there’s always some form of barrier with communication. This barrier makes it difficult for humans to completely understand what goes in animals’ minds. This barrier was even the downfall of one of Tilikum’s trainers. Tilikum misunderstood the trainer and performed a trick longer than intended and missed the que from the trainer to stop. Tilikum then wasn’t rewarded due to lack of food in the bucket which most likely angered Tilikum

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Tilikum at SeaWorld Orlando 2009

As social creatures ourselves, it makes sense to want to make connections with both other people and animals. But, with the barrier of communication between humanity and animals being so strong, people tend to forget that animals themselves aren’t always so eager to make friends.

References:

  • Frith, C.F, 2005. The social brain: allowing humans to boldly go where no other species has been. 1st ed. London: The Royal Society.

The value of suffering

While it sounds off putting and odd, watching another person suffer can be engaging. That sentence alone is bound to get a few comments however if you think about it, we’ve been exposed to it throughout our lives. This doesn’t necessarily mean people like watching someone struggle on the street but struggle in television shows and books. Think of the Superhero movies that have become popular over the years. If the main protagonist went through the entire movie without a struggle there would be no tension therefore failure to keep the viewer interested.

The term “underdog” comes to mind, which is defined as the person who is expected to lose but still defies expectations and wins (Keinan, 2010). Without a doubt, watching someone blast through all obstacles without struggle would be boring. It’s the reason why films like Rocky was the highest grossing film of 1975.

So if the concept of struggle in fiction is entertaining is there any use or value of capturing real, unfiltered struggle and showing it to the public? Of course. The Independent released an article about dead children that drowned off the coastal town of Bodrum in Turkey. This article included disturbing photos of a dead child that washed up on a beach. While quite disturbing, capturing these moments can inform others about unknown situations and make people think.

Of course, taking pictures of people dying or horrific pictures how you like isn’t a good way about it. Like with anything, there is a negative effect. “The Vulture and the Little Girl” (Warning: Disturbing) is an example of a negative effect. The photo itself won a Pulitzer prize however there was a slight controversy regarding the safety of the child. So much so, The New York Times had to publish a statement regarding the health of said child:

“A picture last Friday with an article about the Sudan showed a little Sudanese girl who had collapsed from hunger on the trail to a feeding center in Ayod. A vulture lurked behind her.

Many readers have asked about the fate of the girl. The photographer reports that she recovered enough to resume her trek after the vulture was chased away. It is not known whether she reached the center.” – Editor’s Note, 1993

Going by that statement, the safety of the girl wasn’t guaranteed by the photographer which implies that they left after getting rid of the vulture. Spreading awareness of people struggling is good by itself but doing nothing about the situation in front of you is definitely not the way to go about it. The Vulture and The Little Girl is an example of how not go about capturing suffering.

With all of that in mind, there is value to capturing people’s struggles and suffering. However, that doesn’t give a reason to disrespect others while they’re down. This should be a given but if you’re the one taking a photo of someone in pain then do what you can to help them as well. Spreading awareness and informing the public means nothing if you do nothing with what’s already in front of you.

References:

Selfies aren’t evil by default

Self portraits are nothing new as like a normal photo, they’re meant to capture a specific moment in time. The main difference being a person being the focus of the picture. The word self portrait has been shortened (like other words such as legitimate/legit, application/app, ammunition/ammo) into selfie. While self portraits have been around for hundreds of years, the term “selfie” has only come about recently. The first known use of the term was on Karl Kruszelnicki’s ‘Dr Karl Self-Serve Science Forum’ in 2002:

“Um, drunk at a mates 21st, I tripped ofer (sic) and landed lip first (with front teeth coming a very close second) on a set of steps. I had a hole about 1cm long right through my bottom lip. And sorry about the focus, it was a selfie.” – Nathan Hope, 2002

The word itself is integrated deeply into youth culture since it blends in well with social media. Social media has a large focus on sharing experiences and thoughts with various people. Social media sites such as Instagram and Snapchat use photos as the main method of interacting with others as well.

Like with the rise of any new trend, there are many who oppose it, the same goes for selfies. People have come to the conclusion that there can be negative side-effects to a selfie.

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Regardless of these negative effects of selfies, a selfie itself is not inherently bad in itself. No harm comes from wanting to capture a moment. On the flip side, there can be some good that come from selfies as well. On websites such as imgur and reddit selfies are used to keep track/show progress of weight loss:

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A selfie showing someone’s weight loss progress

Another thing to keep note is that while selfies are linked to narcissism and people constantly want likes to increase their self worth, their perception of their self worth can be shattered if no likes are obtained. However, those photos and people generally post photos that are considered beautiful or pretty by the public. Posting selfies of someone’s overweight body would get negative reception one might think. However this isn’t the case as with many of progress selfies, they’re met with great reception and even words of encouragement.

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A progress selfie being rewarded with words of encouragement and positive comments (Source)

This contrasts greatly to popular belief that only beautiful women get positive comments while men get negative comments. While all of that can be true for some cases, it all comes down to intention. If a woman posts a picture of herself with make up and trying her hardest to be beautiful with the sole intention of getting likes, it can be received negatively. On the other hand, if an overweight man posts pictures of himself to keep track of his weight loss over a few months then they will most likely be praised for their efforts. Of course there’s no real way to know the intent of the poster but it’s safe to say people assume when looking at a selfie.

 

References:

 

The “Rising” of Technology

It’s no myth that technology is deeply integrated into our way of living. As stated by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in this report “The number of households with access to the internet at home increased, reaching 7.7 million in 2014–15, representing 86% of all households (up from 83% in 2012–13)” As for what devices were used to access the internet in these households the results are as follows:

  • Desktop/Laptop: 94%
  • Mobile/Smart phones: 86%
  • Tablets: 62%

This is only one aspect of technology that’s integrated into many people’s lives but what are the effects? Many movies, books and even games have questioned the future of technology but there is one that is unique; Metal Gear Rising. Despite being set in a video game world, it is an interesting look at (while extreme and almost unbelievable at times) what technology can offer.

The Metal Gear series is infamous for it’s themes of war being the main focus of the series. In Metal Gear Solid 4 the theme of modern war was tackled, Metal Gear Rising does the same albeit to the extreme. Metal Gear Solid 4 had players tackling soldiers enhanced with nanomachines and advanced war machines but despite this it was still grounded in (some) reality. This was due to the fact you as a player still had the limitations of human ability by playing as Solid Snake (Main character of Metal Gear Solid 1 and 4)

Metal Gear Rising turns it to 11 with the player taking control of a powerful ninja cyborg Raiden who has the ability to take on gigantic monster sized war machines with ease. To give you an idea of just how extreme Metal Gear Rising, here’s a quick look at some combat:

If people can make an analysis of the distant cyber-dystopian world of Matrix and Ghost in the Shell and apply those themes to reality then Metal Gear Rising is no different. While Metal Gear Rising does have a couple of themes that drive the story, one of the main themes is the blur between human and machine.

When you think about it what is the difference between human and machine? Simply put, one is made out of flesh and organs while the other is completely made out of metal or anything other than flesh and organs. But with recent advancements in technology, the reality of at least having cyborg prosthetics can be achieved. Prosthetic limbs is entirely possible and have been used on people without arms or legs.

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Daniel Omar, a 14 year old with a prosthetic arm

With how rapidly this kind of technology is advancing, how long would it take for humans to reach the capability to even make bodies for a person to inhabit? And at that point the question arises whether or not they are human. Metal Gear Rising explores this theme thoroughly although not many people tend to look into it. The themes of cyber-dystopia are most certainly there but hidden behind humor, fast-paced action gameplay and high octane music.

As for how I’m going convey these themes, it’ll be done through a YouTube video series a la Let’s Play videos. The standard format of general Let’s Play videos include commentating live on what’s happening within the moment, not often are they scripted. However, due to the non-informal nature of Let’s Play videos I’ll be adding commentary post-recording. This commentary may include things such as;

  • Character motifs as they appear
  • Reasons for certain events happening
  • How said events and characters add to the overall story

This is done to avoid the non-informal nature of Let’s Play videos. Generally lots of Let’s Players tend to go on for 20 minutes talking about their own lives or just reading character dialogue. While others can find entertainment out of these kinds of Let’s Plays, I want to avoid falling into that category.

The current plan is to include only important segments within the game such as boss fights and cutscenes (though this is open to change as the project goes on).

Controlling perspective through language (BCM240 Digital Story Assignment)

Regardless of how much information we see, hear and consume, there will always be one barrier that prevents us from consuming information, Language. Language is how we understand information and if we don’t understand the language, we can’t consume it. Even if we have the technology to read what’s happening halfway across the world, if it’s not in a language we understand then we cannot consume it. Media itself is always translated and localized for it’s intended audience. Books, movies and games, are all localized/translated so the target audience can consume it. Generally speaking, books and movies generally have a direct translation. For example, not much if anything is lost when translating Harry Potter into French or Spanish. Games however, are quite different.

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Left: Soul Blazer (English) VS Right: SoulBlader (Japanese)

Like any global business trying to gain worldwide appeal, game developers have localization teams. They’re job is to translate and edit the game to appeal to a specific market. Like Mcdonalds, they adapt their product to suit the country the product is in. As seen in the above picture, the two versions of Soul Blazer not only have different names but the woman has a different appearance. On the left, she has more of a European appearance while on the right, her facial structure is more similar to that of Japanese animation. Games can have either major or minor differences across versions. This can lead to having completely different experiences when playing either one.

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The protagonist of the game Nier differs depending on which version you play.

In terms of major differences, a wonderful example is the game Nier. The game was developed in Japan by Cavia games and published by Square Enix for both PS3 and Xbox 360. In Japan, the game received two different versions. One being called Nier Replicant and the other Nier Gestalt. Replicant had the player play as Yonah’s older brother, a young and slim teenager. Gestalt had the player play as Yonah’s father who looks to be quite old and muscular. When question about this change, developers Yoko Taro and Yosuke Saito commented: Full interview transcript here (Japanese)

Taro: 「最初は青年のバージョン(後にレプリカントになるもの)だけを作っていたのですが、途中から齊藤さんから海外市場も考えたいという話がありました。そこで、スクウェア・エニックスさんのロサンゼルススタジオで議論をしたところ、線の細い青年キャラは有り得ないという話になりました。そこで北米向けにマッチョな主人公を用意することにしたんです。」

Taro: “Lately the teenage version (The one that later became Replicant) was the only one that was being made but, there was a story from Saito that made me think about the overseas market. From there, there was a debate in the Square Enix localization studio, saying that there was no way we could have a slim young man. Therefore we made a decision to make a macho-like protagonist for the international version.”

Saito:「ただ、新規IPで売らなくてはいけないという思いも強く、何が何でも青年をやりたいという横尾さんを説得して、日本版は青年をそのまま残すという道を作りながら、2バージョンの開発に進んでいきました。それに、必ずしも海外は全て同じ趣向という事もなくて、例えばフランスで日本の文化に理解を示すような層からは「レプリカント」を発売してくれという声も聞いています。ともかく、開発の途中からグローバルで開発している人たちを交えて話が出来たのは収穫でした。」

Saito: “With a new IP we had strong feelings that it had no choice but to sell, Yoko settled with a young teenage protagonist which he wanted to do, with this in mind we kept the teenage protagonist in the Japanese version while developing the two versions. Of course, not everyone shares the same tastes, for example in France, they understand multiple layers of Japanese culture and we’ve heard lots of people requesting for the Replicant version. Anyway, during development there was a bit of talk regarding the global release.”

As Saito mentions, Yoko Taro really wanted to do the teenage protagonist. However due to the different tastes of foreign audiences, an entirely new protagonist was made for the international version of the game, Gestalt. This brings the question, is the game still the same in terms of gameplay and story? Gameplay-wise, it’s still the exact same game and the end result of quests within the game play out the same way. However, chemistry and interaction between characters has been altered. Since Nier is an action RPG with a huge focus on story and it’s characters, this changes the game quite a bit.

The story was made with teenage Nier in mind. While there is no official statement to prove this, as Yoko Taro said, it was the one he wanted most to be in the game. On top of this, the game has been discussed to be a deconstruction of the RPG genre of games, which young Nier is a spitting image of your typical RPG pretty boy protagonist.

So not only does Japan receive two versions of Nier but the only one to make it out of Japan was the Gestalt version. Because of this, you’re given a slightly different experience and possibly even different perspective of the story depending on which version you play. Sadly there is no official release of Nier Replicant outside of Japan, so this prevents anyone who doesn’t know Japanese to experience it for themselves. Which again brings back the point of controlling how someone experiences a product through language. While it is not crucial to play both versions, it does add an extra layer of interest to the Nier games. This isn’t the same as censorship however. The Drakengard series (Which Nier is a part of) has multiple timelines. While Yoko Taro did say he wanted to use the young Nier, Gestalt is considered canon and takes place in an alternate timeline. As said earlier, this adds to the experience if you know about both versions

With that said, what other examples are there? One popular title is Fire Emblem Fates (Also known as Fire Emblem if in Japan).

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Japanese box art of Fire Emblem if (English version shares the same box art)

There are times where localization only edits some content to make it more suitable for a suitable for a foreign audience. There are also times where a localization team decides to take away features and change a lot more than just character names. Fire Emblem Fates is the latter. Safe to say, the reception of the localization changes received quite the backlash.

So what changed with Fire Emblem Fates? The most significant change was the removal of the Skinship feature. Think Pokemon Amie but with people’s faces instead. Here’s a quick clip to show you what Skinship looks like:

Regardless of how people feel about the removal, localization team, Treehouse felt the need to remove the feature. Sadly the only remnants of this feature that are left are when you marry a character. Once the player character’s avatar and another character reach an S rank relationship in the English version, the player is able to wake up their significant other by tapping their face via the touch screen or blowing into the 3DS mic. This is the most significant feature that was removed.

To give a little context, Fire Emblem is a series that puts a huge focus on it’s characters. Fire Emblem always has a large roster of characters to play as and with Fire Emblem Fates there are over 70 characters. Each with their own backstory and interactions with most characters. With such a large cast of characters, majority of the characterization is done through conversations that the characters have with each other. It’s through these conversations that they’ll show their personality and quirks. This places huge importance over translating these conversations properly, so that the character’s personalities aren’t lost in translation. Sad to say but, Treehouse did a number on that part too. Take a look:

Thankfully not all conversations between characters have been altered to this extent. However there have been enough changes made to majority of the conversations for someone to have played both Japanese and English versions for them to notice a huge difference. Here’s another example:

As you can see, the English version and Japanese version give different experiences. Unlike Nier however, playing both the English and Japanese version doesn’t enhance the experience. In fact, if you understand Japanese then it’s clear the Japanese version is superior because it contains the creator’s original message and characters. When playing through the English version, it feels like something is missing. This is essentially censorship. Regardless of what the original creator intended, the localization team behind it changed characters and took away a key feature in the game. The game was changed to how Treehouse wanted you to experience it.

So, what’s a good example of a great localization? Square Enix had developer Cavia games change it’s protagonist for the international version, Fire Emblem Fates took a feature away and altered character interactions, how does one do a good localization? Dragon Quest VIII (Also known as Dragon Quest VIII: The Sky, the Ocean, the Earth, and the Cursed Princess in Japan) is one.

To give a bit of context the Dragon Quest series is often referred to as the godfather of the Japanese RPG genre. It was the first one of it’s kind in Japan. It released in 1986 for Nintendo’s Famicom. The games were released only in Japan and North America for a short while, until Dragon Quest VIII. Dragon Quest VIII is the first completely 3D title in the series and first one to have a complete worldwide release. So, if it’s such a good localization, that must mean there’s no difference between the Japanese and English versions, right? Wrong.

A good localization is able to translate a game and let a foreign audience have the same experience as the original audience that was intended.  No effort was made to censor the game in any way like previous games. However, keep in mind, the game released while the PS2 was fairly new. The Dragon Quest series was never in 3D before and it was the first time a Dragon Quest game was being released in Europe. Obtaining a large following with Dragon Quest VIII was essential for the series success outside of Japan.

A few changes were made to the international version of the game. The most significant changes would be the design of the menu. Here’s a comparison between the Japanese and English version:

As you can see the overall menu has been overhauled for the English versions of the game. The Japanese version’s aesthetic is consistent with the previous games in the series while the English version has more details and color.

Not only the menu was changed but the entire soundtrack as well. Instead of using the same in-studio recordings as the Japanese version did, the international versions of the game received orchestrated versions of the entire soundtrack. Take a listen of the battle theme present in the Japanese version:

And here’s the English version:

As you can hear, the English soundtrack is entirely orchestrated. The entire game is high quality both in English and in Japanese. So what makes this localization special from the rest? Dragon Quest in itself, is a very Japanese game. Despite having roots in western RPGs such as Ultima Online and Wizardry, it has a very Japanese feel to it. The manga-esque aesthetic drawn by Akira Toriyama, the exaggerated and cheesy dialogue, it all adds to a unique experience made in Japan. The localization team behind Dragon Quest VIII was able to retain that feeling AND have it appeal to a foreign audience, without anything lost.

In summary, when it comes to video games, what you received out of the box may not always be the same thing someone else across the ocean got. Games are a unique medium that allows the player to interact with a world, they have an effect within it. Tampering with a few characters here and there while mostly minor changes, can lead to a completely different experience. Which in turn changes your perspective on the game.

Internet of Things: Australia ain’t going nowhere

To summarize quite briefly, the “Internet of Things” is the idea of any technical device connecting to the internet, absolutely anything. This can not only include smartphones and computers, but GPS or even an airplane. Generally, if it has both an on and off switch than it can be considered a part of the IoT.

Supposedly according to Gartner, there will be over 6.4 billion “Things” will be in use this year, which is a 30 per cent increase compared to last year. Quite astonishing really. With that said, can Australia contribute a large amount to that number? Australia currently is ranked 60th in the world rankings of internet speed. Falling behind even the likes of third world country Romania. Sadly even with NBN it’s doubtful that will be of any help to the Internet of Things. Reception of it is pretty terrible for quite an alarming number of people.

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Region-lock: Fire Emblem if and Fire Emblem Fates

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Japanese box art of Fire Emblem if White Night Kingdom and Black Knight Kingdom.

Fire Emblem Fates (AKA Fire Emblem if in Japan) is a strategy role playing game made for the 3DS. There are two versions of the game which give vastly different experiences from each other. Fire Emblem Birthright (AKA Fire Emblem if White Night Kingdom in Japan) and Fire Emblem Conquest (AKA Fire Emblem if Black Night Kingdom in Japan). 

There are four regional versions of Fire Emblem Fates:

  • Japan
  • US
  • Europe/PAL
  • South Korea

The ratings for each version of Fire Emblem Fates are as follows:

  • Japan/CERO C (Age 15+)
  • US/ESRB T (Age 13+)
  • Europe/PEGI 12 (Age 12+)
  • South Korea/GRAC 12 (Age 12+)

The release dates for each version are:

  • Japan: June 25th 2015
  • US: February 19th 2016
  • Europe/PAL: May 21st 2016
  • South Korea: September 8th 2016

The US and European versions of Fire Emblem Fates share the exact same translation as each other. The English translation of the game was done by Nintendo Treehouse who are in charge of English, French and Spanish localisations for Nintendo games. The only difference between these two versions is the region code. This makes them only playable on their respective region. The English (US/Europe) versions of the game have multiple differences from their Japanese counterpart. Interestingly enough, the South Korean version of the game, both Birthright and Conquest were put into the same cartridge. It should be noted that the game was originally made in Japan by Intelligent Systems, a second party developer for Nintendo.

Major differences:

Removal of petting mini-game:

The main difference between the Japanese and English versions of Fire Emblem Fates is the removal of the petting system. In the Japanese version, there’s a feature where the player is able to pet one of the playable characters through the use of the touch screen. This feature allowed players to strengthen the bond between the player character’s avatar (Generally known as either Corrin or Kamui) and other playable characters.

As seen in the video above, the petting feature is similar to Pokemon’s amie feature. The only remnants of this feature that are left are when you marry a character. Once the player character’s avatar and another character reach an S rank relationship in the English version, the player is able to wake up their significant other by tapping their face via the touch screen or blowing into the 3DS mic.

Nintendo or Nintendo Treehouse have yet to release an official statement as to why they removed this feature from the game. However fans speculate that it could’ve been seen as somewhat strange to a foreign audience. In Japan, head patting is very normal between teenagers. It can be a simple sign of fondness towards a person. Generally it’s common between Senpai/先輩 (Upper class student) and Kouhai/後輩 (Lower class student)

Interactions between characters:

While the core gameplay of Fire Emblem Fates remains consistent between all versions, interactions between multiple characters have changed between the Japanese and English version. To put this into perspective, Fire Emblem is a series that has a huge cast of characters. Fire Emblem Fates has the largest playable roster in the series with roughly 70 playable characters. All of which can interact with each other and even get into relationships with each other. Aside from the main and side story quests in the game, a large majority of characterization is done through conversations between characters in the down time between battles. Safe to say, it plays a major part in the game. The following video is a conversation between Saizou and Belka, left is the English version and on the right is the Japanese version (With a translation):

Not every conversation between characters is altered to this degree but there is enough to give a different experience when playing either the Japanese or English version. Here is another example:

With the way translation of the conversations has been done, it in turn changes the personality and characteristics of characters. One significant example of this is the interaction between the Corrin/Kamui and Soleil. To give a brief explanation, here’s an image of Soleil and her profile:

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Profile of Soleil from Fire Emblem if 4koma Comic & Character Guide Book (Translation and scan provided by Kantopia)

To keep the post succinct, I’ll only take key points in the conversation between Corrin/Kamui and Soleil to explain the controversy.

Soleil loves cute girls to the point where if she sees one or gets near one on the battlefield, she will faint. To aid Soleil with her issue, Corrin/Kamui puts a magic powder in Soleil’s drink without her knowing or consent. This magic powder allowed Soleil to see Corrin/Kamui as a female. The original Japanese text reads:

「実は、ある魔法の粉を手に入れてね…悪いけど、それをさっき、君の飲み物の中に入れさせてもらった。その粉を飲んだ者は…なんと、自分以外の人の性別が逆に見えるんだ!」

The English translation is:

“I managed to get my hands on a kind of magic powder… I’m really sorry, but a little while ago, I poured some of it into your drink. The person who drinks that powder… somehow becomes able to see other people as the gender opposite what they actually are!”

Meanwhile in the English version of the game, the conversation went into a completely different route. Below is a snippet of the conversation in the English version of the game.

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If you would like to read the entire conversation in the Japanese version, the transcript (translated into English) for it is here. Also if you would like to read the transcript for the English version it is here.

That about does it for major differences between the Japanese and English versions of Fire Emblem Fates.